4 0 obj Life cycle and appearance of Cottony cushion scale As with all scale insects, the females do not have wings and look similar to the immature stages. . Cottony maple scale • Outbreaks occur on weakened or stressed trees • Heavy infestation can cause the death of small branches and occasionally the death of a tree • Produce large amounts of honeydew, leaves may be shiny/sticky • Promotes black sooty mold on branches/trunk • Adults and eggs are resistant to insecticides (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. The honeydew can also attract wasps and ants. Life History. Eggs generally hatch in early summer and release the crawler stage , the only highly mobile stage in the insect's life cycle. Cottony camellia scale is a soft scale that feeds on camellia, holly, yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and maple. Biology and life cycle The scale overwinter as nymphs on twigs of the leaves. These masses produce a considerable amount of sticky liquid that resembles tree sap and eventually turns black due to fungal growth. The mature female scale are 2 to 5 millimeters long and are light to dark brown. Cottony cushion scale has two to three generations a year. Among the more secretive creatures in the animal world are armored scale insects. During June, the inconspicuous female scales that spent the winter on the stems expand and begin producing a large, white, cottony egg sac. Armored scales are enclosed in this cover that is constructed of wax, shed skins and other substances. The mature female scale are 2 to 5 millimeters long and are light to dark brown. Cottony Maple Scale damage can very in severity by level of infestation. Severe damage usually only occurs on otherwise weakened or stressed trees. The eggs hatch in late spring and early summer into tiny microscopic crawlers. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. There are some special considerations when deciding on a pest management strategy for cottony maple scale. The complete life cycle of cottony cushion scale takes around 2 months in summer, with at least two generations occurring per year. This soft scale overwinters as a second instar nymph on the bark of host twigs and branches. The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. mm long They do not fully mature until the following spring, after which they begin to produce the white cottony egg sacs. As a general rule, however, armored scales usually spend the winter in the egg stage or as mature females. Over the space of 1-3 weeks, these scale eggs hatch into a form that’s called a crawler. The good news-bad news is that insecticides used to control cottony maple scale can also kill good insects. Oils can also be used during winter to control the overwintering females. <>/Font<>/Pattern<>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. Then in late spring eggs are produced hidden under the mother scale. Both of the cottony scales have life cycles that are very similar; however, the cottony maple scale appears to have a wider host range. 1 = Herms,D.A. This adventive scale insect from Australia was first found in New Zealand in 1877 after which it became a serious pest on trees and shrubs, including citrus orchards, until controlled by the Australian cardinal ladybird, Rodolia cardinalis (Coccinellidae) and the fly, Cottony cushion scale parasitoid, Cryptochaetum iceryae (Cryptochetidae). It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. Young nymphs hatch from these eggs in summer. Scale insects that make these cottony egg sacs are called cottony scales. By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. It is also known as cottony taxus scale. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. Specific products should be carefully considered to avoid killing beneficials. Cottony cushion scale completes its life cycle in three months during warm weather conditions. In the spring, adult females lay cottony egg masses about 0.25 inch long on the underside of leaves. Dr. Purchas who, [he] believe[d], first found it". Unlike most other scales, it retains its legs and its mobility throughout its life. with its southern boundary being at … Some scales have only one generation per year and others can have multiple generations. However, some maple species are sensitive to oils and this should be considered, to avoid spring leaf die-back. The occasional unfertilised egg develops into an adult winged male. Both of the cottony scales have life cycles that are very similar; however, the cottony maple scale appears to have a wider host range. The eggs hatch, and the crawlers settle on the leaves along the veins to feed. Adult females are about 1/8 inch long, oval and yellowish tan with a brown margin. Sometimes hatched crawlers will be caught and blown to other plants by the wind, and at other times they will simply move to a different portion of the same plant. In cases where a tree is very heavily infested, you may notice yellowing and prematurely falling leaves, or even some branch dieback. . 2 = Sadof, C.S. Cottony maple scale (on silver maples and honeylocust) and severval Lecanium scale spp. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. In spring, when depositing eggs, scales on twigs resemble strings of popcorn. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. Honeydew is produced and this falls onto foliage and flowers and, in turn, becomes colonised by sooty mould fungi, turns black, and blocks sunlight. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, and brown scales 1/4 to 3/8-inch in diameter, that can attach themselves firmly to tree branches. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. Cottony maple scale is most recognizable when the female produces an egg sac made of strands of wax that resembles cotton in color and texture. The scale, adults and nymphs, sucks sap and weaken plants. Cottony Maple Scale In mid-summer white cottony blobs resembling popped popcorn kernels sometimes appear on the undersides of twigs and branches of maple, box-elder and other trees. CALL US: 386.719.1354 Home; Current Book; Rates & Specs; Distribution; Contact Us; cottony maple leaf scale Here's what I'd do: Keep the maples healthy by … The cottony maple leaf scale prefers maples which isn't surprising given the scale's … Description and Life Cycle. Female cottony maple scales produce the white ovisacs that look like cotton balls. In winter, the cottony maple scale females change colors and overwinter on the trees. The "cotton" is actually a waxy secretion enveloping the ovisac, which may contain over 1,500 eggs. Cottony Maple Scale has one generation per year, and understanding its life cycle is crucial for management of this pest, because not all pesticides will be effective at all insect life stages. with its southern boundary being at or slightly north of I-72. Using degree days and plant phenology to predict pest activity. Icerya purchasi (common name: cottony cushion scale) is a scale insect that feeds on more than 65 families of woody plants, most notably on Citrus and Pittosporum.Originally described in 1878 from specimens collected in New Zealand as pests of kangaroo acacia and named by W.M. [��]����F�$_�a�Ә���2'k?I����X��y Females at this stage are slightly green with a white powder coating and are about 1/8-inch long at this stage. Life Cycle: This scale overwinters as second instars and molts and matures to 3rd instars in early spring. The closely related cottony maple scale (P. innumerabilis) also produces ovisacs but they are attached to stems. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. and many others) have a similar life cycle to the calico scale. Monitoring: Look for copious amounts of honeydew 1 0 obj When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. Recommendations for managing insects and mites on shade trees and shrubs. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. (77) Photo: Whitney Cranshaw Cottony maple scale, adult females with egg sacs on twigs. Immature cottony cushion scales have black limbs and an orange-brown body that is coated with white and yellow wax. The eggs hatch, and the crawlers settle on the leaves along the veins to feed. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. Newly settled scales begin producing a waxy cover almost immediately. Late May or early June, the eggs hatch and tiny white "crawlers" find new feeding sites on the host plant. The life cycle is similar to cottony maple scale. The female completes development in June and lays egg masses through late summer. 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